Corporate taxation in the United States of America is a complex system that includes income tax, sales tax, import duties, and export duties. The rates for each type of taxation vary depending on a number of factors including income, location, and product type. Understanding the various types of corporate taxation is essential for businesses operating in the United States to ensure compliance with relevant legislation and to minimize their tax liability.
Corporate income tax is imposed on the net income earned by a corporation in a given fiscal year. The tax rate is based on the taxable income of the corporation and varies depending on the income bracket. The income tax rates range from 15% to 35%, depending on the income bracket. For the fiscal year 2022, the tax brackets are as follows:
- Corporations with taxable income up to $50,000 pay a 15% tax rate.
- Corporations with taxable income between $50,001 and $75,000 pay a 25% tax rate.
- Corporations with taxable income between $75,001 and $10,000,000 pay a 34% tax rate.
- Corporations with taxable income over $10,000,000 pay a 35% tax rate.
The current legislation that governs corporate income tax is the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.
Goods and Services Tax (GST) or Value Added Tax (VAT):
Unlike many other countries, the United States does not have a nationwide Goods and Services Tax or Value Added Tax system. Instead, individual states levy their own sales tax on the sale of goods and services. Sales tax rates vary from state to state and range from 0% to 11%. In some states, local municipalities also levy their own sales tax, which can increase the overall sales tax rate. For example, in California, the sales tax rate ranges from 7.25% to 10.25%, depending on the location of the sale.
The current legislation that governs sales tax is the Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement (SSUTA).
Import duties, also known as tariffs, are taxes levied on goods imported into the United States from other countries. The purpose of import duties is to protect domestic industries by making imported goods more expensive. The rates for import duties vary depending on the type of product being imported and the country of origin. The United States has a complex system of import duties that are regulated by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency.
The current legislation that governs import duties is the Tariff Act of 1930.
Unlike many other countries, the United States does not have a nationwide export duty system. However, there are certain products that are subject to export duties. For example, certain types of crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas are subject to export duties. The rates for export duties vary depending on the type of product being exported and the destination country.
The current legislation that governs export duties is the Export Administration Act of 1979.